Flow Playground

Epoch and Reward Schedule

How the Flow protocol manages the schedule of an epoch and rewards payments

This information covers the current state of how epoch phases are ran and how rewards are calculated and distributed to node operators and delegators. All of the information in the document is still being designed and is subject to change based on research and discussion by the Flow core team and community. If any changes are proposed, the Flow community will be notified in advance.


Flow Epoch Schedule

An Epoch is a period of time when the node operators in the network are constant. At epoch boundaries, newly staked node operators are able to join the network and existing node operators which have unstaked may exit the network.

Each epoch lasts approximately a week, and the Epoch Switchover is defined as the point in time when one epoch ends and the next epoch begins, marking a possible change in the list of valid nodes.

The exact timing of the epoch end is influenced by the number of blocks proposed during the epoch. All quoted epoch end times are estimates and subject to some variance. See Epoch Preparation Protocol for details.

Epoch Switchovers will happen at approximately 8:00 am PT on Tuesday (3:00 pm UTC) every week. Please note that all staking operations that interact with staked tokens will be processed by the protocol at the start of each epoch.


Rewards are also paid at 8:00 am PT on Tuesday (3:00 pm UTC), every week, to all users that have tokens staked. This is the same time as the Epoch Switchover. See the Rewards Distribution section below for more information about rewards calculation and schedule.

Staking Auction

The first, and longest phase of an epoch is the staking auction. This phase is when nodes and delegators can register to stake and perform other staking operations such as staking more tokens or unstaking their existing tokens. None of these operations are fully executed until the Epoch Switchover though.

The Staking Auction lasts for at least the first 90% of the length of an Epoch

Epoch Setup and Epoch Commit

The Epoch Setup and Epoch Commit phases are the final phases of the epoch, when node operators who have been included in the next epoch perform important setup functionailty to prepare for the next epoch.

The Epoch Setup and Epoch Committed phases last less than 10% of the time of an epoch.

Staking Operations will be rejected during the Epoch Setup and Epoch Commit phases. This is because the staking information has been finalized in preparation for the next epoch and cannot be changed because these final phases rely on the staking information being constant.

Rewards Distribution

The rewards distribution schedule has been designed to ensure there is enough liquid supply of FLOW available in the ecosystem to empower a wide variety of use cases and promote fair and diverse participation in the Flow ecosystem.

The numbers in this table represent the total amount of tokens that are paid as staking rewards at each epoch to the entire pool of participants in the Flow network as a whole. While total staking reward per epoch is known and fixed, individual rewards are variable depending on many factors.

The total rewards for each epoch are fixed for that epoch, but where those rewards come from can change. When the protocol pays rewards, it first pulls from the central pool of all the transaction fees that have been paid by every user in the network since the last rewards payment. Once that pool has been depleted, the protocol mints new tokens that are used as rewards.

Please see the next section on how to calculate an individual staking reward.

Dec 22Dec 29, Jan 5, 12, 19, 26Feb 2 weekly on Tuesdays until Dec 21, 2021Weeks 53+
Total Rewards % (Annual)5%20%5%TBD
Total Rewards Amount Per Week~1.2M FLOW~4.4M FLOW~1.2M FLOWTBD

Individual Calculation

Each user gets a percentage of the total rewards during each epoch that is proportional to their percentage of all the tokens that are staked by all participants.

The full reward calculation on a per-user basis is equal to:

New Reward(user) = Tr  * (Sn / St)  


  • Tr = Total staking rewards to be paid out during the current epoch. (See table above)
  • Sn = Amount of FLOW Staked by the target user for the current Epoch. (Different for each staker)
  • St = Sum of all the FLOW staked by all the participants in the network. (Changes every epoch)

Rewards for delegators are also calculated in the exact same way that rewards for node operators are calculated, with one difference in that 8% of the staking reward amount is given to the node operator being delegated to (effected as a protocol layer fee, which is the same for all node operators). The remaining 92% is awarded to the delegator. Note: the 8% fee is only applied to the staking reward, not to the tokens delegated.

With this calculation, the node you choose to run or delegate to DOES NOT affect the amount of rewards you receive every week. The only variable that you can control is the number of tokens you have staked. The more tokens you stake, the more rewards you will receive.

Because of the variable nature of the rewards calculation, we cannot provide an expected weekly/yearly return for a single staker. You can plug your own numbers into the formula to see some sample calculations, but you won't be able to know exactly what you will earn until the beginning of the epoch in which you are participating in staking or delegation.

Rewards History

Epoch StartEpoch EndReward Payout Transaction ID
December 16, 2020December 22, 20201ab22491777fb3c75333135c82b90a9f56ede8e0d18d43ecf6c5589d06353f95
December 23, 2020December 29, 2020d7a8daca55dcadddd21dc9b63e71c515032584e9cf126b74744f676a1196e3c8
December 30, 2020January 5, 20219e377e6818d19b7a26d65b076120b2681d512111d397c617cac0843060437fc9
January 6, 2021January 12, 202129886f7cdbbb47b96dfa05ad277fcb3c8876c4ee32954269a926061aa4157af7
January 13, 2021January 19, 202183d585f3fa1368258cf317690e4bf82d4f841bfe2ccbc6c191838b73371b6e66
January 20, 2021January 26, 2021487759099a09fc088943aac45909cca37d6b5bed418feab502ff37bd1b93346f
January 27, 2021February 2, 2021c2f29629040ae6fca12e103f676bf112200f24f0fc8b4cb99c92f9287ce6195f
February 3, 2021February 9, 2021e29a22e29297fcd8f67a030ae641405e14a889167a639f54b05f48fe1142bd5b
February 10, 2021February 16, 2021d775735a1d9a8574faaa2b82b9dea0833d5bf48e43845c9c6bf5a42eb96414f2
February 17, 2021February 23, 2021eed4f38fe4fec2bf9b60eba7708ff7d41fa654942ccc20cb1fc86872813f5b93
February 24, 2021March 2, 20213650b50994719480b8358a507afa30d58c232a30a6cfd947a94b62a78d25c849
March 3, 2021March 9, 2021e4db187672cf545c865850840ff66d34c43cb298d8aae687c209c7f2fef44ea1
March 10, 2021March 16, 20212791557e2bdf4be66f69eeb919c5c3da94f2af4baf9c1e6953aedd887715bd7e
March 17, 2021March 23, 202115ac2d8ee73eae3483da10370dcc6f432d928d4631be22f8c7f0f85a8a62e1fd
March 24, 2021March 30, 2021a60e812b005100290a4657f7022f1e2d3dc4745e25a0373b82d807c77471e069
March 31, 2021April 6, 20217674a088faa2b30ace3c798c2273face4e2b41970ca1990ad9d96a1bb7e2c2b2
April 7, 2021April 13, 20214addbcc17f8a5e9ecf1eb0d78a5c59332cde9d11ce347da676009284247565dd
April 14, 2021April 20, 202186917dcf3055d1aa21d898ccd4b8d1f55fd0924c7f5b7ce708dd92e69094e83d
April 21, 2021April 27, 20215c46cc3ff35a522d9439f26023e11a0f8697bf04b418e9e019a95ab3f49231ce
April 28, 2021May 4, 20217c79febe209178851e4c6b0c1d9bf89955f89783ea8f9ace65e4c442ddd16e7d
May 4, 2021May 11, 2021df60fda0991410b871b80437840e461ecd5b35decc6da201a1e5d62ae23b0cec
May 11, 2021May 18, 2021a0ea12fe8166b3d3b10cb221cbc3dd236dba5990274e9a90c32e6a904f72d96f
May 18, 2021May 25, 20215a3093f7e577ba8e6dc3c6241c7b3a0c09d3068a91a684a477277d4f792e19da
May 25, 2021June 1, 20219b0e38d3b1fba1194e6d4bb441e095013ab9c2a634f9d18d7250a7e4f62a620d
June 1, 2021June 8, 20218d06b6d75fd315cdbe0caf035fb42b8503aef5f12b875fb18c38b9329cf10b83
June 8, 2021June 15, 20219b86013070876210c5ff04c5518d7698d21be2c3d4525cf985a82b311e7bb217
June 15, 2021June 22, 2021207f908a7e949c1094dee63f71bf9f8487e07d8a2d904265b358ee03dc59441a
June 22, 2021June 29, 2021f9cc19931aa131511951ff339dd3c454cdc7d956611cf0271e68c0ed50f6fca2
June 29, 2021July 6, 2021406c3fe36fb4eb05cb3ba830cb0a8b66b6fc6d6f3d56e237eef201fe3b7b9821
July 6, 2021July 13, 2021ade3ad62894c99798876b0c8fb9db84e978a14e23095944abcf76d614e5c018b
July 13, 2021July 20, 202151dab505c0bd843af3c3e43d5502cdc21c2f6dbb5765383b0a285f0578f859d4
July 20, 2021July 27, 20218730f4ff3552ca1e47777e51eda0169f49880bf49da19106839a8e20ae6bbec6
July 27, 2021August 3, 2021d8a85bdd767f56a63bcb627bd74b1fe47f6e0d50b9c19b32c47895ca8373d208