Flow Playground

Proving Ownership of a Flow Account

Proving Ownership of a Flow Account

A common desire that application developers have is to be able to prove that a user controls an on-chain account. Proving ownership of an on-chain account is a way to authenticate a user with an application backend. Fortunately, FCL provides a way to achieve this.

During user authentication, some FCL compatible wallets will choose to support the FCL account-proof service. If a wallet chooses to support this service, and the user approves the signing of message data, they will return account-proof data and a signature(s) that can be used to prove a user controls an on-chain account.

We'll walk through how you, an application developer, can use the account-proof service to authenticate a user.

Are you an FCL Wallet Developer? Check out the wallet provider specific docs here

Authenticating a user using account-proof

In order to authenticate your users via a wallet provider's account-proof service, your application needs to configure FCL by setting fcl.accountProof.resolver and providing two pieces of information.

The fcl.accountProof.resolver is an async resolver function used by FCL to retrieve account proof data from your application server. It can be set in your application configuration under the fcl.accountProof.resolver key. The resolved data should include a specific application identifier (appIdentifier) and a random nonce. This data will be sent to the wallet for signing by the user. If the user approves and authentication is successfull, a signature is returned to the client in the data field of an account-proof service.

Application Identifier

An application identifier is a human-readable string that uniquely identifies your application name. The identifier is displayed by wallets when users are asked to approve a signing request. It helps users compare against the request origin and detect some malicious phishing attempts, improving trust of the application and signing process.

Random Nonce

In addition to the appIdentifier your application must provide a minimum 32-byte random nonce as a hex string.

If for any reason your application backend does not want to request an account-proof during authentication, it should send a response of null. If FCL receives a null response from the accountProof.resolver it will continue the authentication process with the wallet but will not request an account-proof and no signature will be returned.

In the case of a network or server error FCL will cancel the authentication process and return a rejected promise.

import {config} from "@onflow/fcl"

type AccountProofData {
  // e.g. "Awesome App (v0.0)" - A human readable string to identify your application during signing
  appIdentifier: string;  

  // e.g. "75f8587e5bd5f9dcc9909d0dae1f0ac5814458b2ae129620502cb936fde7120a" - minimum 32-byte random nonce as hex string
  nonce: string;          

type AccountProofDataResolver = () => Promise<AccountProofData | null>;

  "fcl.accountProof.resolver": accountProofDataResolver

Here is the suggested order of operations of how your application might use the account-proof service:

  • A user would like to authenticate via your application client using FCL. The process is triggered by a call to fcl.authenticate(). If fcl.accountProof.resolver is configured, FCL will attempt to retrieve the account proof data (appIdentifier and nonce) and trigger your server to start a new account proof authentication process.
  • Your application server generates a minimum 32-byte random nonce using a local source of entropy and sends it to the client. The server saves the challenge for future look-ups.
  • If FCL successfully retrieves the account-proof data, it continues the authentication process over a secure channel with the wallet. FCL includes the appIdentifier and nonce as part of the FCL:VIEW:READY:RESPONSE or HTTP POST request body. If the resolver function call fails to retrieve the nonce, FCL will cancel the authentication process.
  • If the wallet supports account proofs and the user approves authentication with the wallet, the wallet will return the account-proof service with its response.

The data within the account-proof service will look like this:

  f_type: "Service",                    // Its a service!
  f_vsn: "1.0.0",                       // Follows the v1.0.0 spec for the service
  type: "account-proof",                // The type of service it is
  method: "DATA",                       // Its data!
  uid: "awesome-wallet#account-proof",  // A unique identifier for the service
  data: {
    f_type: "account-proof",
    f_vsn: "2.0.0"

    // The user's address (8 bytes, i.e 16 hex characters)
    address: "0xf8d6e0586b0a20c7",                 

    // Nonce signed by the current account-proof (minimum 32 bytes in total, i.e 64 hex characters)
    nonce: "75f8587e5bd5f9dcc9909d0dae1f0ac5814458b2ae129620502cb936fde7120a",

    signatures: [CompositeSignature],
  • Your application client initiates a secure channel with your application server to relay the account-proof data and authenticate the user with your server. Subsequent exchanges between the client and server will happen over this channel.

  • Your application server receives the account-proof data structure, and can then begin the verification process.

    • The server checks if the Flow address corresponds to an existing application account and determines whether it needs to sign in a returning user or create a new account. It is up to your application to decide how to manage the two cases.
    • The server looks the challenge up. If the nonce is not found or the nonce has expired, reject the authentication request, otherwise continue.
    • The server determines whether the CompositeSignature in the account-proof data structure contains valid signatures for the nonce and on-chain accounts (more details in the section below on how this is done).
    • If the verification is successful, delete the nonce or mark it as expired, the application account defined by the on-chain address is successfully logged in. Otherwise the authentication fails and the nonce is not deleted.


Your application can verify the signature against the data from account-proof data using FCL's provided utility:

import { AppUtils } from "@onflow/fcl"

  const accountProofData = {
    accountProof.address,   // address of the user authenticating
    accountProof.nonce,     // nonce
    accountProof.signatures // signatures
  const isValid = await AppUtils.verifyAccountProof(

Implementation considerations:

  • The authentication assumes the Flow address is the identifier of the user's application account. If an existing user doesn't have a Flow address in their profile, or if they decide to authenticate using a Flow address different than the one saved in their profile, the user's account won't be found and the process would consider a new user creating an account. It is useful for your application to consider other authentication methods that allow an existing user to update the Flow address in their profile so they are able to use FCL authentication.
  • In the account-proof flow as described in this document, the backend doesn't know the user's account address at the moment of generating a nonce. This results in the nonces not being tied to particular Flow addresses. The backend should enforce an expiry window for each nonce to avoid the pool of valid nonces from growing indefinitely. Your application is encouraged to implement further mitigations against malicious attempts and maintain a scalable authentication process.
  • FCL account-proof provides functionality to prove a user is in control of a Flow address. All other aspects of authentication, authorization and session management are up to the application. There are many resources available for setting up secure user authentication systems. Application developers should carefully consider what's best for their use case and follow industry best practices.
  • It is important to use a secure source of entropy to generate the random nonces. The source should insure nonces are not predictable by looking at previously generated nonces. Moreover, backend should use its own local source and not rely on a publicly available source. Using a nonce of at least 32-bytes insures it is extremely unlikely to have a nonce collision.
  • Your application identifier appIdentifier is a constant defined by your backend. It is important that the backend uses the appIdentifier it expects when verifying the signatures, and not rely on an identifier passed along with the account-proof. For this reason, appIdentifier is not included in the account-proof data.
  • A successful FCL authentication proves the user fully controls a Flow account. This means the user controls one or many account keys with weights that add up to the full account weight. The authentication would fail if the user doesn't control keys that add up to a full weight.